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Norway, the land of the trolls are also said to have a number of fjords, waterfalls ordinary there is to be there too and the cities with the colored wooden houses were built long ago by the Vikings. Not only the tourist is fascinated by the stunning nature of Norway. The people who live there in harmony with her, wearing open heart and a brilliant conversationalist.

Facts about Norway

The form of government is a constitutional monarchy with significant parliamentary trains. In the face of one of Europe's largest countries, Norway is quite sparsely populated with only 5.3 million inhabitants (2018). On average, results in only 13 inhabitants per square kilometer, in Germany, there are, for example, 226th

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The predominantly majority of Norwegians living in the southern parts of the country, above all in the metropolitan area around the capital Oslo. Other major cities are Bergen and Stavanger on the southwest coast and yet already much farther north, beautiful university city of Trondheim.

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About 70 percent of the population live in the larger cities, while large areas of the rather barren highlands, known fells are completely deserted. The highest point is just under 2,470 meters of Galdhøpiggen, which belongs to the mountain range located in Jotunheimen approximately midway between Bergen and Trondheim.

Trondheim
Norwegen für die Familie – Ein Besuch in der norwegischen Botschaft 2019

Norway, its geography and geology

The relatively narrow land extends in an orientation from southwest to northeast over more than 2,000 kilometers in length. At its breitesten point, it measures about 400 kilometers at its narrowest south of the Lofoten only 50 kilometers. The southernmost point southwest of Kristiansand is located at a latitude of about 58 degrees, the famous North Cape and popular destination is on 71.17 degrees north latitude.

Norwegen Alesund Sonnenuntergang Berge Insel
Norway Alesund Sunset Mountain Island

Moving along this latitude to the west, you reach for example the Arctic Ocean Baffin Bay west of Greenland. And you are sailing from the North Cape of about 600 kilometers to the north-northwest, you come to the southern tip of Spitsbergen, a large, resource-rich archipelago, which also belongs to Norway. However, there live more polar bears than Norwegians and former very often have very bad mood.

Animals in Norway

On Spitsbergen live about 3,000 polar bears in the wild. The archipelago is regularly driven by cruise ships as well as ships of the Hurtigruten. Not infrequently, the passengers get these predators in their natural habitat right in front of the camera.

Eisbär Bär Atem Luftblasen Untergetaucht Wasser
Polar Bear breath bubbles Immersed water

Eventful geological past

The "Spirit of the North" is certainly a result of the geological development. The Caledonian orogeny, so the mountain building of the Scandinavian peninsula, reached its peak in the Silurian before about 430 million years ago. That was long before the opening of the Atlantic Ocean and to the Alps was not even thinking.

the landscape was rounded off in the truest sense of the grinding performance of the glaciers during the ice ages, made especially for the diverse fjords, which cut hundreds of kilometers into the country, and the wide expanse of lakes in Scandinavia are responsible.

The mountains, once as high as the Himalayas, had enough time to let fall prey to all the sediments of erosion, so the hikers today in Norway as in Sweden and Finland foot mainly on ancient granite and gneiss, those beautiful, equipped with streaks Metamorphite , touches down.

The last "Vistula" -Kaltzeit, in the Alps, it is called "Würm" ended only geologically very short time, namely about 12,000 years ago. At that time Scandinavia had quite an outfit as today's Greenland, was so crushed by a several thousand-meter-high ice sheets. After this extreme ballast is finally henceforth uplift rates of up to Scandinavia today measured to one centimeter per year, a reaction of the sought for pressure equalization mantle.

Norway - land of the fjords

It is therefore not surprising that the underground Norway mainly from old, hard, dense rock of the era Silurian, Cambrian and Eozoikum there. The largest glacially formed domestic or Fjordsee is Mjøsa. km² with an area of ​​about 365 it is only slightly smaller than our Lake Constance. As the Oslo Fjord however, this lake is part of a tectonic grave breach, its origin precisely this point was sort of inevitable.

Coast with fjords

That the solid, upcoming basement can not erode as quickly, such as chalk or sandstone rocks, with the result that have formed on the surface of many rapids and amazing high waterfalls.

Norway - water, lakes, oceans and even waterfalls:

Europe's deepest freshwater lake (514 m) is located in the west of Norway. The area of ​​the Hornindalsvatnet comprises about 50 square kilometers. Since its surface is 53 meters above sea level, lies its lowest point at least 461 m below sea level. Because here open out no glacial rivers with turbid freight, its water is very clear and clean.

Europe's highest waterfall is Mardalsfossen. It is located in the West Norwegian Vestlandet region. There the water falls cascaded through several stages of 655 m in depth. the imposing upper case stage alone is already close to 300 m.

Mardalsfossen, waterfall in Romsdal, Norway.
fromwikipedia Photo Credit: Rünno
  • Address: 6472 Eikesdal, Norway,
    Mardalsfossen, Erikesdal on the map
  • Height of the first stage: 655 m
  • Length of the waterfall: ca 900 m
  • 2 steps
  • Width: 30 m
  • Largest level: about 360 m

Norway has an extremely long coastline

That the many fjords extend the Atlantic coast clear each is certainly clear. But the dimensions that result from this are enormous. If there were at the Norwegian coast fjords no, this would be at least 2,650 kilometers long. But since we know about the existence of the fjords know, we have to accept now a coastline of over 25,000 km.

As real realists, we know that Norway many islands can call his own, there are indeed 150,000 in number. we add their coastal lengths to Norway is the proud owner of 80,000 km of coastline, which is as much as if you were sailing twice around the equator. The best known and wildesten island groups are certainly the Lofoten and Vesterålen that are already above the Arctic Circle.

Interesting facts about the Arctic Circle:

The Polar circle is characterized in that there on June 21, the sun never sets on the longest day of the year, but protrudes from the north polar cap on the flattened over. Conversely, that remains on the shortest day of the year, on December 21, the sun appears not even noon at 12 o'clock, but the day below the horizon line.

In our second part about Norway you can find out what families with children in this beautiful country can experience everything together.

This article was created with the support of an experienced geophysicist who has worked among others with the geology of Scandinavia. "

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